The Treaty of Sugauli (also spelled Sugowlee , Sagauli and Segqulee) famously known as the treaty for Establishing boundary line of Nepal was signed on 2 December 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16. The signatory for Nepal was Raj Guru Gajraj Mishra aided by Chandra Shekher Upadhayaya,the signatory for the Company was Lieutenant Colonel Paris Bradshaw. The treaty called for territorial concessions in which parts of Nepal would be given to British India, the establishment of a British representative in Kathmandu, and allowed Britain to recruit Gurkhas for military service. In the regard of this treaty, Independent India continues Gorkha Regiment in their Armed force.
Under the treaty, Nepal agreed to hand over the area of the territories that the King of Nepal had won in wars in the last 25 years or so. It was some part of Sikkim in the east, Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom (also known as Gadhwal) in the west and much of the Terai in the south. Most of the Terai lands were restored to Nepal again in 1860 to thank Nepal for helping the British to suppress the Indian rebellion of 1857. Sugauli also had military cantonment like Meerut.
Highlights of the Sugauli Sandhi (Treaty)
- There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the East India company and the king of Nepal.
- The king of Nepal will renounce all claim to the lands which were the subject of discussion between the two States before the war; and will acknowledge the right of the company to the sovereignty of those lands.
- The king of Nepal will cede to the East India company in perpetuity all the under mentioned territories: i) The whole of low lands between the rivers Kali and Rapti. ii) The whole of low lands between Rapti and Gandaki, except Butwal. iii) The whole of low lands between Gandaki and Koshi in which the authority of the East India company has been established. iv) The whole of low lands between the rivers Mechi and Teesta. v) The whole of territories within the hills eastward of the Mechi river. The aforesaid territory shall be evacuated by the Gorkha troops within forty days from this date.
- With a view to indemnify the chiefs and Bhardars of Nepal, whose interest will suffer by the alienation of the lands ceded by the foregoing Article (No. 3 above), the East India company agrees to settle pensions to the aggregate amount of two lakhs of rupees per annum on such chiefs as may be decided by the king of Nepal.
- The king of Nepal renounces for himself, his heirs, and successors, all claim to the countries lying to the West of the River Kali, and engaged never to have any concern with those countries or the inhabitants thereof.
- The king of Nepal engages never to molest or disturb the king of Sikkim in the possession of his territories. If any difference shall arise between Nepal and Sikkim, it shall be referred to the arbitration of the East India company.
- The king of Nepal hereby engages never to take or retain in his service any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.
- In order to secure and improve the relations of amity and peace hereby established between Nepal and Britain (East India company), it is agreed that accredited Ministers from each shall reside at the court of the other.
- This treaty shall be ratified by the King of Nepal within 15 days from this date, and the ratification shall be delivered to Lt. Col. Bradshaw, who engages to obtain and deliver to the king the ratification of the Governor-General within 20 days, or sooner, if practicable.
DONE at Sugauli, on the 2nd day of December 1815. PARIS BRADSHAW, LT.-COL.,P.A.
Received this treaty from Chandra Shekhar Upadhyaya, Agent on the part of the King of Nepal, in the valley of Makwanpur, at half-past two o'clock p.m. on 4 March 1816, and delivered to them the Counterpart Sandhi (Treaty) on behalf of the British Government.